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Technical Library

UVC Technical Publications Library

Guidelines for Environmental Infection Control in Healthcare Facilities – CDC and HICPAC (Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee Recommendations).

Guidelines for Environmental Infection Control in Healthcare Facilities – CDC & HICPAC. – Morbidity and Mortality Weekly. 

The Application of Ultra Violet Germicidal Radiation to Control Transmission of Airborne Disease Bioterrorism Countermeasure.

UVGI & NIOSH.

NIOSH Study Simulates Hospital Room to Test UV System for Employee TB Protection.

Environews – UVGI Environmental Health perspectives.

Healthcare Facilities –CDC and Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee Recommendations HICPAC Complete.

Analysis of Efficacy of UVGI Inactivation of Airborne Organisms Using Eulerian and Lagrangian Approaches.

Guidelines for the Management of a Suspect Case of Smallpox in Acute Care Medical Settings in Kansas.

Guidelines for the Management of a Suspect Case of Smallpox in Acute Care Medical Settings in NYC – Excerpt. 

Guidelines for the Management of a Suspect Case of Smallpox in Acute Care Medical Settings in NYC – Complete.

Assessing the Efficacy of UVGI & Ventilation in Removing Mycobacterium Tuberculosis.

Environmental & Occupational Health Response to SARs – Taiwan.

U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion – Guidelines on the Design of HVAC Systems in Disease Isolation Areas. 

Tuberculosis Infection Control Program – Wisconsin.

HHSA – Canada – Protecting Health Care Workers from Infectious Diseases.

Environmental Control Measures Airborne Infection Isolation in Healthcare Facilities for Smallpox SARs & other Infections. – NYC.

U.S. Court House mould complete. 

U.S. Court House mould excerpts.

California Schools and UV.

MRSA and Clostridium Difficile Compensation Claims Increase at Pannone LL

W4-F.1  15:30  Estimated Risk of MRSA Colonization among Swine WorkersKocian JL*, Shirai JH, Kissel JC, Meschke JS; University of Washington

Levetin E, Shaughnessy R, Rogers CA, Scheir R. Effectiveness of germicidal UV radiation for reducing fungal contamination within air-handling units. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:3712–5.[PMC free article][PubMed]

Menzies D, Popa J, Hanley JA, Rand T, Milton DK. Effect of ultraviolet germicidal lights installed in office ventilation systems on workers’ health and wellbeing: double-blind multiple crossover trial.Lancet. 2003;362:1785–91. [PubMed]

 

Schmarda LK. Der Einfluss des Lichtes auf die Infusionsthierchen. Med Jahrbüucher des k. k. Österreichischen Staates. 1845;54:257–70.

 

Downes A, Blunt TP. The influence of light upon the development of bacteria. Nature. 1877;16:218.

 

Downes A, Blunt TP. Researches on the effect of light upon bacteria and other organisms. Proc R Soc Lond. 1877;26:488–500.

 

Downes A, Blunt TP. On the influence of light upon protoplasm. Proc R Soc Lond. 1878;28:199–212.

Hockberger PE. A history of ultraviolet photobiology for humans, animals and microorganisms.Photochem Photobiol. 2002;76:561–79. [PubMed]

 

Tyndall J. Note on the influence exercised by light on organic infusions. Proc R Soc Lond.1878;28:212–3.

 

Tyndall J. On the arrestation of infusorial life. Science. 1881;2:478.

 

Duclaux E. Influence de la luminére du soleil sur la vitalité des germes des microbes. Compt Rendus Hebd des Seances de l’Academie des Sciences. 1885;100:119–21.

 

Duclaux E. Sur la durée de la vie chez les germes des microbes. Annales de Chimie et de Physique. 1885;6:5–59.

 

Duclaux E. Influence de la luminére du soleIl sur la vitalité de micrococcus. Compt Rendus Hebd des Seances et Mémoires Soc et Biologies. 1885;37:508–10.

 

Koch R. Ueber bakteriologische Forschung. Berlin: Hirschwald; 1890.

 

Geisler T. Zur Frage über die Wirkung des Licht auf Bakterien. Centralblatt für Bakteriologie und Parasitenkunde. 1892;11:161–73.

 

Buchner H. Ueber den Einfluss des Lichtes auf Bakterien. Centralblatt für Bakteriologie und Parasitenkunde. 1892;11:781–3.

 

Ward HM. Experiments on the action of light on Bacillus anthracis. Proc R Soc Lond.1892;52:393–400.

 

Ward HM. Further experiments on the action of light on Bacillus anthracis. Proc R Soc Lond.1893;53:23–44.

 

Ward HM. The action of light on bacteria. III. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B. 1894;185:961–86.

 

Bang S. Die Wirkungen des Lichtes auf Mikrooganismen. Mitt Finsens Med Lysinst. 1901;2:1–107.

 

Bang S. Über die Wirkungen des Lichtes auf Mikroben. II. Eine verbesserte Untersuchungs methode. Mitt Finsens Med Lysinst. 1903;3:97–112.

 

Barnard JE, Morgan H. Upon the bactericidal action of some ultra-violet radiations as produced by the continuous-current arc. Proc R Soc Lond. 1903;72:126–8.

 

Hertel E. Ueber Beeinflussung des Organismus durch Licht, speziell durch die chemisch wirksamen Strahlen. Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Physiologie. 1904;4:1–43.

 

Hertel E. Ueber physiologische Wirkung von Strahlen verschiedener Wellenlänge. Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Physiologie. 1905;5:95–122.

 

Henri MmeV, Henri V. Variation du pouvoir abiotique des rayons ultraviolets avec leur longueur d’onde. C R Seances Soc Biol Fil. 1914;73:321–2.

 

Gates FL. A study of the bactericidal action of ultra violet light: I. The reaction to monochromatic radiations. J Gen Physiol. 1929;13:231–48. [PMC free article][PubMed]

 

Gates FL. A study of the bactericidal action of ultra violet light: II. The effect of various environmental factors and conditions. J Gen Physiol. 1929;13:249–60. [PMC free article][PubMed]

 

Gates FL. A study of the bactericidal action of ultra violet light: III. The absorption of ultra violet light by bacteria. J Gen Physiol. 1930;14:31–42. [PMC free article][PubMed]

 

Harris FI, Hoyt HS. The possible origin of the toxicity of ultra-violet light. Science. 1917;46:318–20.[PubMed]

 

Coohill TP. Historical aspects of ultraviolet action spectroscopy. Photochem Photobiol.1997;65(Suppl 1):S123–8.

 

Ehrismann O, Noethling W. Uber die bactericide wirkung monochromatischen lichtes. Z Hyg Infektionskr. 1932;113:597–628.

 

Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage. Compte rendu. Berlin: Proceedings of the CIE Session; 1935.

 

Hollaender A, Claus WD. The bactericidal effect of ultraviolet radiation on Escherrischia coli in liquid suspensions. J Gen Physiol. 1936;19:753–65. [PMC free article][PubMed]

 

Hollaender A, Emmons CW. The action of ultraviolet radiation on dermatophytes: I. The fungicidal effect of monochromatic radiation on the spores of Trichophyton mentagrophytes. J Cell Comp Physiol. 1939;13:391–402.

 

Emmons CW, Hollaender A. The action of ultraviolet radiation on dermatophytes: II. Mutations induced in cultures of dermatophytes by exposure of spores to monochromatic radiation. Am J Bot.1939;26:467–75.

 

Hollaender A, Oliphant JW. The inactivating effect of monochromatic ultraviolet radiation on influenza virus. J Bacteriol. 1944;48:447–54. [PMC free article][PubMed]

 

Beukers R, Berends W. Isolation and identification of the irradiation product of thymine. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1960;41:550–1. [PubMed]

 

Setlow RB. Cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers in polynucleotides. Science. 1966;153:379–86.[PubMed]

 

Hockberger PE. The discovery of the damaging effect of sunlight on bacteria. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2000;58:185–91.[PubMed]

 

Bruls WA, Slaper H, Van der Leun JC, Berrens L. Transmission of human epidermis and stratum corneum as a function of thickness in ultraviolet and visible wavelengths. Photochem Photobiol.1984;40:485–94.[PubMed]

 

Wells WF. On air-borne infection: study II. Droplets and droplet nuclei. Am J Hyg. 1934;20:611–8.

 

Flüugge C. Ueber Luftinfektion. Z Hyg Infectionskr. 1897;25:179–224.

 

Wells WF, Fair MG. Viability of B. coli exposed to ultra-violet radiation in air. Science.1935;82:280–1. [PubMed]

 

Sharp DG. A quantitative method of determining the lethal effect of ultraviolet light on bacteria suspended in air. J Bacteriol. 1938;35:589–99. [PMC free article][PubMed]

 

Sharp DG. The effects of ultraviolet light on bacteria suspended in air. J Bacteriol. 1940;39:535–47. [PMC free article][PubMed]

 

Hart D. Sterilization of the air in the operating room by special bactericidal radiant energy: results of its use in extrapleural thoracoplasties. J Thorac Surg. 1936;6:45–81.

 

Hart D. Bactericidal ultraviolet radiation in the operating room: twenty-nine-year study for control of infections. JAMA. 1960;172:1019–28.

 

Overholt RH, Betts RH. A comparative report on infection of thoracoplasty wounds: experiences with ultraviolet irradiation of operating room air. J Thorac Surg. 1940;9:520–9.

 

Kraissl CJ, Cimiotti JG, Meleney FL. Considerations in the use of ultraviolet radiation in operating rooms. Ann Surg. 1940;111:161–85. [PMC free article][PubMed]

 

Woodhall B, Neill RG, Dratz HM. Ultraviolet radiation as an adjunct in the control of postoperative neurosurgical infection. II clinical experience 1938–1948. Ann Surg. 1949;129:820–4.

 

Goldner JL, Moggio M, Beissinger SF, McCollum DE. Ultraviolet light for the control of airborne bacteria in the operating room. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1980;353:271–84. [PubMed]

 

Lowell JD, Kundsin RB, Schwartz CM, Pozin D. Ultraviolet radiation and reduction of deep wound infection following hip and knee arthroplasty. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1980;353:285–93. [PubMed]

 

Del Mundo FD, McKhann CF. Effect of ultraviolet irradiation of air on incidence of infections in an infants’ hospital. Am J Dis Child. 1941;61:213–25.

 

Robertson EC, Doyle ME, Tisdall FF, Koller LR, Ward FS. Air contamination and air sterilization.Am J Dis Child. 1939;58:1023–38.

 

Sommer HE, Stokes J., Jr. Studies on air-borne infection in a hospital ward: I. The effect of ultra-violet light on cross-infection in an infants’ ward. J Pediatr. 1942;21:569–76.

 

Henle W, Sommer HE, Stokes J., Jr. Studies on air-borne infection in a hospital ward: II. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation and propylene glycol vaporization upon the prevention of experimental air-borne infection of mice by droplet nuclei. J Pediatr. 1942;21:577–90.

 

Sauer LW, Minsk LD, Rosenstern I. Control of cross infections of the respiratory tract in a nursery for young infants: a preliminary report. JAMA. 1942;118:1271–4.

 

Robertson EC, Doyle ME, Tisdall FF. Use of ultraviolet radiation in reduction of respiratory cross infections in a children’s hospital: final report. JAMA. 1943;121:908–14.

 

Rosenstern I. Control of air-borne infections in a nursery for young infants. Am J Dis Child.1948;75:193–202. [PubMed]

 

Barenberg LH, Greene D, Greenspan L, Greenberg B. Effect of irradiation of air in a ward on the incidence of infections of the respiratory tract: with a note on varicella. In: Moulton FR, editor.Aerobiology. Washington: Publication of the American Association for the Advancement of Science No. 17; 1942. pp. p. 233–6. American Association for the Advancement of Science.

 

Higgons RA, Hyde GM. Effect of ultraviolet air sterilization upon incidence of respiratory infections in a children’s institution: a six-year study. N Y State J Med. 1947;47:707–10. [PubMed]

 

Wells WF, Wells MW, Wilder TS. The environmental control of epidemic contagion I: an epidemiologic study of radiant disinfection of air in day schools. Am J Hyg. 1942;35:97–121.

 

Wells WF. Airborne contagion and air hygiene: an ecological study of droplet infections.Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press; 1955.

 

Council on Physical Therapy. Acceptance of ultraviolet lamps for disinfecting purposes. JAMA.1943;122:503–5.

 

Lurie MB. Experimental epidemiology of tuberculosis: the prevention of natural air-borne contagion of tuberculosis in rabbits by ultraviolet irradiation. J Exp Med. 1944;79:559–72.[PMC free article][PubMed]

 

Wheeler SM, Ingraham HS, Hollaender A, Lill ND, Gershon-Cohen J, Brown EW. Ultra-violet light control of air-borne infections in a naval training center: preliminary report. Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1945;35:457–68. [PMC free article][PubMed]

 

Miller WR, Jarrett ET, Willmon TL, Hollaender A, Brown EW, Lewandowski T, et al. Evaluation of ultraviolet radiation and dust control measures in control of respiratory disease at a naval training center. J Infect Dis. 1948;82:86–100. [PubMed]

 

Willmon TL, Hollaender A, Langmuir AD. Studies of the control of acute respiratory diseases among naval recruits: I. A review of a four-year experience with ultraviolet irradiation and dust suppressive measures, 1943–1947. Am J Hyg. 1948;48:227–32. [PubMed]

 

Jarrett ET, Zelle MR, Hollaender A. Studies of the control of acute reparatory disease among naval recruits: II. Limitations of ultraviolet irradiation in reducing air-borne bacteria in barracks with low ceilings. Am J Hyg. 1948;48:233–9. [PubMed]

 

Langmuir AD, Jarrett ET, Hollaender A. Studies of the control of acute respiratory diseases among naval recruits: III. The epidemiological pattern and the effect of ultraviolet irradiation during the winter of 1946–1947. Am J Hyg. 1948;48:240–51. [PubMed]

 

Whisler BA. The efficacy of ultra-violet light sources in killing bacteria suspended in air. Iowa State Coll J Sci. 1940;14:215–31.

 

Wells WF, Wells MW. Air-borne infection: sanitary control. JAMA. 1936;107:1805–9.

 

Wells WF. Bactericidal irradiation of air: part I. Physical factors. J Franklin Inst. 1940;229:347–72.

 

Wells WF. Ray length in sanitary ventilation by bactericidal irradiation of air. J Franklin Inst.1944;238:185–93.

 

Wells WF. Circulation in sanitary ventilation by bactericidal irradiation of air. J Franklin Inst.1945;240:379–95. [PubMed]

 

Luckiesh M. Applications of germicidal, erythemal, and infrared energy. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company; 1946.

 

Harstad JB, Decker HM, Wedum AG. Use of ultraviolet irradiation in a room air conditioner for removal of bacteria. Appl Microbiol. 1954;2:148–51. [PMC free article][PubMed]

 

Miller OT, Schmitt RF, Phillips GB. Applications of germicidal ultraviolet in infectious disease laboratories: I. Sterilization of small volumes of air by ultraviolet irradiation. Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1955;45:1420–3.[PMC free article][PubMed]

 

Nardell EA. Transmission and safety issues. In: Friedman LN, editor. Tuberculosis: current concepts and treatment. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 1994. pp. p. 53–70.

 

Riley RL, O’Grady F. Airborne infection: transmission and control. New York: The Macmillan Company; 1961.

 

Riley RL, Wells WF, Mills CC, Nyka W, McLean RL. Air hygiene in tuberculosis: quantitative studies of infectivity and control in a pilot ward. Am Rev Tuberc. 1957;75:420–31. [PubMed]

 

Riley RL, Mills CC, Nyka W, Weinstock N, Storey PB, Sultan LU, et al. Aerial dissemination of pulmonary tuberculosis: a two-year study of contagion in a tuberculosis ward. Am J Hyg.1959;70:185–96.

 

Riley RL, Mills CC, O’Grady F, Sultan LU, Wittstadt F, Shivpuri DN. Infectiousness of air from a tuberculosis ward. Ultraviolet irradiation of infected air: comparative infectiousness of different patients. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1962;85:511–25. [PubMed]

 

McLean RL. The mechanism of spread of Asian influenza: general discussion. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1961;83:36–8. (2 Pt 2)

 

Riley RL, Permutt S. Room air disinfection by ultraviolet irradiation of upper air: air mixing and germicidal effectiveness. Arch Environ Health. 1971;22:208–19. [PubMed]

 

Riley RL, Permutt S, Kaufman JE. Convection, air mixing, and ultraviolet air disinfection in rooms.Arch Environ Health. 1971;22:200–7. [PubMed]

 

Riley RL, Permutt S, Kaufman JE. Room air disinfection by ultraviolet irradiation of upper air: further analysis of convective air exchange. Arch Environ Health. 1971;23:35–9. [PubMed]

 

Riley RL, Kaufman JE. Air disinfection in corridors by upper air irradiation with ultraviolet. Arch Environ Health. 1971;22:551–3. [PubMed]

 

Riley RL, Kaufman JE. Effect of relative humidity on the inactivation of airborne Serratia marcescens by ultraviolet radiation. Appl Microbiol. 1972;23:1113–20. [PMC free article][PubMed]

 

Kethley TW, Branch K. Ultraviolet lamps for room air disinfection: effect of sampling location and particle size of bacterial aerosol. Arch Environ Health. 1972;25:205–14. [PubMed]

 

Riley RL, Knight M, Middlebrook G. Ultraviolet susceptibility of BCG and virulent tubercle bacilli.Am Rev Respir Dis. 1976;113:413–8. [PubMed]

 

Riley RL, Nardell EA. Clearing the air: the theory and application of ultraviolet air disinfection. Am Rev Repir Dis. 1989;139:1286–94.

 

Wells MW. Ventilation in the spread of chickenpox and measles within school rooms. JAMA.1945;129:197–200.

 

Perkins JE, Bahlke AM, Silverman HF. Effect of ultra-violet irradiation of classrooms on spread of measles in large rural central schools: preliminary report. Am J Public Health Nations Health.1947;37:529–37. [PMC free article][PubMed]

 

Wells MW, Holla WA. Ventilation in the flow of measles and chickenpox through a community: progress report, Jan. 1, 1946 to June 15, 1949, Airborne Infection Study, Westchester County Department of Health. JAMA. 1950;142:1337–44.

 

Air disinfection with ultra-violet irradiation: its effect on illness among school-children. Spec Rep Ser Med Res Counc (G B) 1954;283:1–88.

 

Brooks GL, Wilson U, Blackfan KD. Studies of cross-infection in the infants’ hospital in Boston. In: Moulton FR, editor. Aerobiology. Washington: AAAS; 1942. pp. p. 228–32. Publication of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, No. 17.

 

Schneiter R, Hollaender A, Caminita BH, Kolb RW, Fraser HF, duBuy HG, et al. Effectiveness of ultraviolet irradiation of upper air for the control of bacterial air contamination in sleeping quarters. Preliminary report. Am J Hyg. 1944;40:136–53.

 

duBuy HG, Dunn JE, Brackett FS, Dreessen WC, Neal PA, Posner I. An evaluation of ultraviolet radiation of sleeping quarters as supplement of accepted methods of disease control. Am J Hyg.1948;48:207–26. [PubMed]

 

Bahlke AM, Silverman HF, Ingraham HS. Effect of ultra-violet irradiation of classrooms on spread of mumps and chickenpox in large rural central schools: progress report. Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1949;39:1321–30. [PMC free article][PubMed]

 

Kingston D, Lidwell OM, Williams RE. The epidemiology of the common cold: III. The effect of ventilation, air disinfection and room size. J Hyg (Lond) 1962;60:341–52. [PMC free article][PubMed]

McAdam JM, Brickner PW, Scharer LL, Crocco JA, Duff AE. The spectrum of tuberculosis in a New York City men’s shelter clinic (1982–1988) Chest. 1990;97:798–805. [PubMed]

 

Porter JD, McAdam KP. The re-emergence of tuberculosis. Annu Rev Public Health.1994;15:303–23. [PubMed]

 

Vincent RL. Airborne disease control: measurement of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVR) in high-risk environments. In: Matthes R, Sliney D, editors. Measurements of optical radiation hazards (ICNIRP 6/98; CIE x016-1998) München: Märkl-Druck; 1998. pp. p. 369–86.

 

Nardell EA. Ultraviolet air disinfection to control tuberculosis in a shelter for the homeless. In: Kundsin RB, editor. Architectural design and indoor microbial pollution. New York: Oxford University Press; 1988. pp. p. 296–308.

 

Iseman MD. A leap of faith: what can we do to curtail intrainstitutional transmission of tuberculosis? Ann Intern Med. 1992;117:251–3. [PubMed]

 

Nardell EA. Environmental control of tuberculosis. Med Clin North Am. 1993;77:1315–34.[PubMed]

 

Riley RL, Nardell EA. Plant, technology & safety management series: controlling occupational exposures to tuberculosis. Oakbrook Terrace (IL): The Joint Commission; 1993. Controlling transmission of tuberculosis in health care facilities: ventilation, filtration, and ultraviolet air disinfection; pp. p. 25–31.

 

Nardell EA. Interrupting transmission from patients with unsuspected tuberculosis: a unique role for upper-room ultraviolet air disinfection. Am J Infect Control. 1995;23:156–64. [PubMed]

 

Stead WW, Yeung C, Hartnett C. Probable role of ultraviolet irradiation in preventing transmission of tuberculosis: a case study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1996;17:11–3. [PubMed]

 

Ko G, First MW, Burge HA. Influence of relative humidity on particle size and UV sensitivity ofSerratia marcescens and Mycobacterium bovis BCG aerosols. Tuber Lung Dis. 2000;80:217–28.[PubMed]

 

Miller SL, Macher JM. Evaluation of a methodology for quantifying the effect of room air ultraviolet germicidal irradiation on airborne bacteria. Aerosol Sci Technol. 2000;33:274–95.

 

Peccia J, Werth HM, Miller S, Hernandez M. Effects of relative humidity on the ultraviolet induced inactivation of airborne bacteria. Aerosol Sci Technol. 2001;35:728–40.

 

Peccia J, Hernandez M. Photoreactivation in airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:4225–32. [PMC free article][PubMed]

 

Ko G, First MW, Burge HA. The characterization of upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation in inactivating airborne microorganisms. Environ Health Perspec. 2002;110:95–101.

 

Miller SL, Hernandez M, Fennelly K, Martyny J, Macher J, Kujundzic E, et al. Efficacy of ultraviolet irradiation in controlling the spread of tuberculosis. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (US); 2002. NIOSH Contract No.: 200-97-2602.

 

Xu P, Peccia J, Fabian P, Martyny JW, Fennelly KP, Hernandez M, et al. Efficacy of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation of upper-room air in inactivating airborne bacterial spores and mycobacteria in full-scale studies. Atmos Environ. 2003;37:405–19.

 

Lai KM, Burge HA, First MW. Size and UV germicidal irradiation susceptibility of Serratia marcescens when aerosolized from different suspending media. Appl Environ Microbiol.2004;70:2021–7. [PMC free article][PubMed]

 

Xu P, Kujundzic E, Peccia J, Schafer MP, Moss G, Hernandez M, et al. Impact of environmental factors on efficacy of upper-room air ultraviolet germicidal irradiation for inactivating airborne mycobacteria. Environ Sci Technol. 2005;39:9656–64. [PubMed]

 

Kujundzic E, Hernandez M, Miller SL. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation inactivation of airborne fungal spores and bacteria in upper-room air and HVAC in-duct configurations. J Environ Eng Sci.2007;6:1–9.

 

First M, Rudnick SN, Banahan KF, Vincent RL, Brickner PW. Fundamental factors affecting upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation—part I. Experimental. J Occup Environ Hyg.2007;4:321–31.

 

McDevitt JJ, Milton DK, Rudnick SN, First MW. Inactivation of poxviruses by upper-room UVC light in a simulated hospital room environment. PLoS One. 2008;3:e3186. [PMC free article][PubMed]

 

Dumyahn T, First M. Characterization of ultraviolet upper room air disinfection devices. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1999;60:219–27.

 

Kowalski WJ, Bahnfleth WP, Witham DL, Severin BF, Whittam TS. Mathematical modeling of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation for air disinfection. Quant Microbiol. 2000;2:249–70.

Rudnick SN. Predicting the ultraviolet radiation distribution in a room with multilouvered germicidal fixtures. AIHAJ. 2001;62:434–45. [PubMed]

 

Gammaitoni L, Nucci MC. Using a mathematical model to evaluate the efficacy of TB control measures. Emerg Infect Dis. 1997;3:335–42. [PMC free article][PubMed]

 

Nicas M, Miller SL. A multi-zone model evaluation of the efficacy of upper-room air ultraviolet germicidal irradiation. Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 1999;14:317–28. [PubMed]

 

Kowalski WJ, Bahnfleth WP. Effective UVGI system design through improved modeling.ASHRAE Trans. 2000;106(Pt 2):1–10.

 

Ko G, Burge HA, Nardell EA, Thompson KM. Estimation of tuberculosis risk and incidence under upper room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation in a waiting room in a hypothetical scenario. Risk Anal.2001;21:657–73. [PubMed]

 

Beggs CB, Sleigh PA. A quantitative method for evaluating the germicidal effect of upper room UV fields. J Aerosol Sci. 2002;33:1681–99.

 

Kowalski WJ, Bahnfleth WP, Rosenberger JL. Dimensional analysis of UVGI air disinfection systems. HVAC&R Res. 2003;9:347–63.

 

Beggs CB, Noakes CJ, Sleigh PA, Fletcher LA, Kerr KG. Methodology for determining the susceptibility of airborne microorganisms to irradiation by an upper-room UVGI system. J Aerosol Sci. 2006;37:885–902.

 

Rudnick SN, First MW. Fundamental factors affecting upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation—part II. Predicting effectiveness. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2007;4:352–62. [PubMed]

 

Chang D, Young C. Effect of turbulence on ultraviolet germicidal irradiation. J Archit Eng.2007;13:152–61.

 

Memarzedeh F. Assessing the efficacy of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation and ventilation in removing Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Bethesda: National Institutes of Health; 2000.

Alani A, Barton IE, Seymour MJ, Wrobel LC. Application of Lagrangian particle transport model to tuberculosis (TB) bacteria UV dosing in a ventilated room. Int J Environ Health Res. 2001;11:219–28.[PubMed]

 

Noakes CJ, Fletcher LA, Beggs CB, Sleigh PA, Kerr KG. Development of a numerical model to simulate the biological inactivation of airborne microorganisms in the presence of ultraviolet light. J Aerosol Sci. 2004;35:489–507.

 

Noakes CJ, Beggs CB, Sleigh PA. Modelling the performance of upper room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation devices in ventilated rooms: comparison of analytical and CFD methods.Indoor Built Environ. 2004;13:477–88.

 

Noakes CJ, Sleigh PA, Fletcher LA, Beggs CB. Use of CFD modeling to optimize the design of upper-room UVGI disinfection systems for ventilated rooms. Indoor Built Environ. 2006;15:347–56.

 

Macher JM, Alevantis LE, Chang Y-L, Liu K-S. Effect of ultraviolet germicidal lamps on airborne microorganisms in an outpatient waiting room. Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 1992;7:505–13.

 

Macher JM, Alevantis LE, Chang Y-L, Liu K-S. Effect of ultraviolet germicidal lamps on airborne microorganisms in an outpatient waiting room [letter] Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 1994;9:462.

 

Bernstein JA, Bobbitt RC, Levin L, Floyd R, Crandall MS, Shalwitz RA, et al. Health effects of ultraviolet irradiation in asthmatic children’s homes. J Asthma. 2006;43:255–62. [PubMed]

 

First MW, Banahan KF, Dumyahn TS. Performance of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation lamps and luminaires in long-term service. LEUKOS. 2007;3:181–8.

 

Rahn RO, Xu P, Miller SL. Dosimetry of room-air germicidal (254 nm) radiation using spherical actinometry. Photochem Photobiol. 1999;70:314–8.[PubMed]

 

Schafer MP, Kujundzic E, Moss CE, Miller SL. Method for estimating ultraviolet germicidal fluence rates in a hospital room. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29:1042–7. [PubMed]

 

Reed NG, Wengraitis S, Sliney DH. Intercomparison of instruments used for safety and performance measurements of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation lamps. J Occup Environ Hyg.2009;6:289–97. [PubMed]

 

First MW, Weker RA, Yasui S, Nardell EA. Monitoring human exposures to upper-room germicidal ultraviolet irradiation. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2005;2:285–92. [PubMed]

 

Nardell EA, Bucher SJ, Brickner PW, Wang C, Vincent RL, Becan-McBride K, et al. Safety of upper-room ultraviolet germicidal air disinfection for room occupants: results from the Tuberculosis Ultraviolet Shelter Study. Public Health Rep. 2008;123:52–60. [PMC free article][PubMed]

 

Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage. Technical report: ultraviolet air disinfection. Vienna: CIE; 2003. CIE 155/2003.

 

Lidwell OM. Ultraviolet radiation and the control of airborne contamination in the operating room.J Hosp Infect. 1994;28:245–8. [PubMed]

 

Ritter MA, Olberding EM, Malinzak RA. Ultraviolet lighting during orthopaedic surgery and the rate of infection. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89:1935–40. [PubMed]

 

Brickner PW, Vincent RL, Nardell EA, Pilek C, Chaisson WT, First M, et al. Ultraviolet upper room air disinfection for tuberculosis control: an epidemiological trial. J Healthcare Saf Compliance Infect Control. 2000;4:123–31.

 

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